P BLOCK ELEMENTS -

 

The periodic table is probably not our most favourite part of chemistry, however there’s a reason it has been introduced into your syllabus! Look around yourself, almost everything you touch, see or use, more or less belongs to the periodic table .The Periodic Table arranges the elements in increasing order of their atomic masses. Born out of this arrangement and the three rules for filling electron orbitals (i.e. lowest energy orbitals fill first, Pauli’s Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule), are the four blocks of the Periodic Table namely: “s-block”, “p-block”, “d-block” and “f-block”. The name to each of the blocks is assigned based on which orbital the last electron enters into. The p-block elements lie to the rightmost of the periodic table. P block elements are shiny and usually a good conductor of electricity and heat as they have a tendency to lose an electron.

  • You will find some amazing properties of elements in a P-block element like gallium. It’s a metal that can melt in the palm of your hand.

  • One of the most interesting facts about the p-block elements is that it contains both non-metals and metalloids.

  • Silicon is also one of the most important metalloids of the p-block group as it is an important component of glass.

  • P block elements consist of boron family, nitrogen family, oxygen family, fluorine family and lastly the family of noble gases that are neon family.

  • Coal is used in villages to cook food. It is nothing but a P-block element i.e. carbon.

  • Diamonds are used for making beautiful ornaments are also made up of carbon.

  • Aluminium foil made up of aluminum is also made up of p block element.

  • P block elements are nothing but the element in which the last electron enters the outermost p-subshell.

  • P block starts from the 13th group and goes till 18th group in the periodic table.

  • The general electronic configuration of p-block elements is ns2np1-6(except He).

  • The highest oxidation of a p block element is equal to the group number minus 10.

  • Moving down the group, the oxidation state two less than the highest group oxidation state becomes more stable in groups 13 to 16 due to inert pair effect (i.e. reluctance of S subshell electrons to participate in electron bonding.)

  • Atomic size of all elements in the 'P' block, decreases as we move from IIIA to VIIA.When we move down a group, say, for example, from carbon to lead in group IV A, the elements increase in size, due to the additional shell added.

  • Ionization energy, or the energy to remove an electron from the outermost shell of an element, increases as we move along from IIIA to VIIA. It is maximum for a noble gas because noble gases have completely filled configuration. Ionization energy decreases as we move down a group. Some elements at the bottom of a group like Lead, tin, Thallium, Bismuth, etc. behave almost as like metals with very low ionization energies.

  • Electronegativity, The property of acquiring an electron or the ability to withdraw electrons from an electropositive element increases as we move from III A to VII A. Elements of VII A have maximum electronegativity, with fluorine being the most electronegative atom present, due to its smaller size.

  • Allotropy is a phenomenon by which one element can exist in many forms. Most elements of IV A, V A, and VI A show allotropy.For example, phosphorus exist in many forms like red phosphorus, white phosphorus, etc.

  • Group III A is said to be Boron group, since the starting element here is Boron. The group consists of Boron(B), Aluminium (Al), Gallium(Ga), Indium(In) and Thallium (Tl). These elements are collectively known as Boron group elements.

  • Carbon group or the IV A group contains Carbon (C) , Silicon (Si), Germanium (Ge), Tin (Sn) and Lead(Pb). Carbon is the main constituent of all organic matter.

  • Nitrogen group consists of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Arsenic (As), Antimony (Sb) and Bismuth (Bi).

  • The VI A group consists of Oxygen (O), Selenium (Se), Tellurium (Te) and Polonium (Po). These are called Chalcogens, since they are ore forming elements.

  • The halogen group of elements includes Fluorine,(F), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br) and Iodine (I). They are all non-metals.

  • Group VIII A or more commonly the 18th group elements are called noble gases, synonymous with noble metals like Gold and Silver. They are less reactive due to the completely filled in configuration.

  • The members of this family are Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe) and Radon (Rn). The last element, Radon is radioactive.

 

Above was a brief of the P block elements and their general properties, if not anything else, do make a mental note of these pointers for they will definitely come in handy in your future.