HALOALKANES AND HALOARENES

 

A very introductory description of haloalkenes and haloarenes can be somewhat like this -                                                halo+alkanes=haloalkane (alkanes with halogens attached)                                                                                   halo+arene=haloarene (arenes with halogens attached) But obviously, there’s more than what meets the eye, so lets have a closer look,

Haloalkanes – the replacement of hydrogen atom(s) in a aliphatic hydrocarbon by halogen atom(s) results in the formation of alkyl halide or haloalkane.                                                                                                                      The carbon atom is Sp3 hybridised.                                                                                                                                                   They form homologous series of general formula CnH2n+1X. They are further classified into primary, secondary, and tertiary.                                                                                                                                      Based on hybridisation we can classify monohaloalkanes into – Sp3 C-X  - alkyl halides , allylic halides , benzylic halides        (single bonded)                                                                        Sp2 C-X – aryl halides, vinylic halides   (double bonded)

                                                      

Haloarenes- the replacement of hydrogen atom(s) in a aromatic hydrocarbon by halogen atom(s) results in the formation of aryl halide or haloarenes.                                                                                                                     The carbon atom is Sp2 hybridised.                                                                                                                                                    They are classified as mono, di, tri, tetra or polyhalogen compounds.

 

                                                                                                        

 

General methods of preparation of Alkyl Halides

 

 

General methods of preparation of Aryl Halides