ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS –

 

ALCOHOLS

  • Alcohols contain the functional group -OH (hydroxyl group)

  • From a given alkane one, two, three hydrogen atoms may be replaced by one, two, three hydroxyl groups, to give monohydric, dihydric, trihydric alcohols respectively

  • The general name polyhydric alcohol indicates that the alcohols contains more than one -OH group. Methyl alcohol (CH3OH) ,Ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) , isopropyl alcohol (CH3)2CHOH, Tertiary butyl alcohol (CH3)3COH etc.are monohydric alcohols.

  • (CH2OH−CH2OH) is dihydric

  • Glycerol (CH2OH−CHOH−CH2OH) is trihydric

  • Sorbitol or mannitol {(CH2OH)−(CHOH)4−CH2OH} is hexahydric.

 

PHENOLS

  • They are a family of organic compounds characterized by a hydroxyl (−OH) group attached to a carbon atom that is part of an aromatic ring.

  • Besides serving as the generic name for the entire family, the term phenol is also the specific name for its simplest member, monohydroxybenzene (C6H5OH), also known as benzenol, or carbolic acid.

  • Phenols are similar to alcohols but form stronger hydrogen bonds. Thus, they are more soluble in water than are alcohols and have higher boiling points. Phenols occur either as colourless liquids or white solids at room temperature and may be highly toxic and caustic.

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ETHERS

  • Ethers are the carbon compounds containing Oxygen atom linked to two alkyl groups.

  • The general formula of ethers is R−O−R or (CnH2n+1)2O or CnH2n+2O.

  • The radico -functional names of ethers are derived by listing the two alkyl groups in an alphabetical order as separate words and then adding the word ether at the end.

  • Ethers are considered to be dialkyl derivatives of water.

  • In IUPAC system, Ethers are named as alkoxy alkanes. The smaller alkyl group along with Oxygen atom is taken as alkoxy part while the larger alkyl group as alkane part.

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  • For eg -

  • In common system, ethers are named after alkyl groups attached to oxygen atom.